Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Ritual Which Has Been A Part Of My Life - 936 Words

The main ritual which has been a part of my life for almost twenty-three years surrounds my children. When they were babies I found myself unable to relax and sleep without first â€Å"checking in† on them to ensure all was right with their worlds. Each night I would very quietly tip toe into each of their rooms, adjust their blankets, and place their favorite stuffed animal within reach to ward off any nightmares. My final step would be to stroke their tiny head, lean down and place a gentle kiss on their foreheads, and whisper, â€Å"sweet dreams†. If for some reason I was not able to do this I would not sleep peacefully. I felt something was missing or I had forgotten something important. As time passed and my children grew, my nighttime ritual was modified. My oldest son no longer sleeps with his favorite bear, and is rarely asleep when I am ready for bed. With him I now ruffle his hair and kiss his forehead, tell him not to stay up too late, and to have sweet dream s. This ritual seems to suffice as I am able to relax and sleep. However, it was very impractical to try this with my youngest as he is in Bloomington and I am in Converse, so he and I came to an alternate arrangement. Each night, roughly around 10:00pm, I receive a text from him to let me know he is alright. I reply to his text with sweet dreams and try not to study too late. In this way I am still practicing my nightly ritual, albeit an amended one, and am able to sleep knowing all is right with their worlds. ManyShow MoreRelatedMy Religion Essay684 Words   |  3 PagesMy Religion What religion am I? In my life, I have been told many things about my religion. My mother is a Roman Catholic, while my father is Jewish. I have learned about both religions, and I have tried to practice both as best I could, but I am now faced with the decision; which one am I? Christians believe that Jesus is both God and man, incarnation of God, and man -gives man two natures, physical and divined that they are united in one person. Thus the mystery of God becomingRead MoreBlood Wedding By Federico Garcia Lorca1485 Words   |  6 PagesIn 1930s Spain, the ritual of marriage became highly controversial as the 1931 Constitution allowed for divorce to be legal. This caused debate between older and younger generations. The elders of society still had their beliefs deeply rooted in the views of the Catholic Church-, which did not allow for divorce. Nonetheless, the younger generation was more prone to giving into desire and therefore was more open to the idea. The play Blood Wedding by Federico Garcia Lorca insinuates the strong importanceRead MoreThe Day Of A Catholic Church Service1245 Words   |  5 Pageswhile attending my weekly Catholic Church service, I strived to analyze the ritualized service. I realized that a service itself is not just comprised of one ritual, but of multiple rituals that are guided by the purpose of ultimately salvaging one’s soul at any given moment by offering one’s time to God. Thus, I sought out to better understand one of the rituals present individually, which is the most important one (though they are all important) present in the service. Such ritual is the blessingRead MoreThe High Heel Drag Race : Victor Turner1242 Words   |  5 Pagesexpect. Although I was somewhat familiar with drag, I’d never been to a show before, and what I saw was an incredibly lively and enthusiastic celebration of sexuality and sensuality. I felt like I was part of something unique and closed-off, that and that anything was allowed in spirit of the performance. My observations that evening have led me to view the whole experience through the lens of Victor Turner’s anthropological perspective on ritual and drama. His perspective is revealing in the discussionRead MoreMy Life as an Orthodox Jew797 Words   |  3 PagesOrthodox Jewish family; so therefore I follow the Torah just like my family taught me. Orthodox Judaism, also known as Conservative Judaism, is a form of Judaism that is very strict and applies the laws and ethics of the Torah. Even though my family is more into the modern orthodox we still follow and respect our religion beliefs, philosophies, and practices. We follow and participate in all Jewish holidays and rituals. As an Orthodox Jew my family follows the daily practices of this religion such us dietaryRead MoreRituals Are A Set Of Actions Performed By Individuals Across Time And Cultures1501 Words   |  7 Pages Rituals are a set of actions performed by individuals across time and cultures, often for religious purposes. Rituals not only play an important role in the community life, but also have had an impact on people’s cultures for a long time. The passage contends that rituals are not easy to change the fundamental format when a society is organized. In other words, rituals have little impact on changing the way where people live; however, following my observation, rituals have affected by outside culturesRead MoreReligion Based On The Art, Architecture And Texts1525 Words   |  7 Pagesthe creation of an object, it probably had a vital purpose to the everyday life in a place so saturated with religion. I feel it is safe to say, that a good number of the physical objects we have from this time period do indeed relate to religious practice in one way or another, in particular to the ritual activity that I find so interesting. For example, we begin to see monuments dedicated to sacred places and the ritual visiting of these places that held holy relics. Another example would be theRead MoreReligion : Hindu Death And Geographical Mobility1750 Words   |  7 Pagesvictims are required to adapt to the domestic laws on death rituals. As Britain has ceased to be a religious dominion, many do not give a second thought to other ‘traditional methods’ that religion requires when a life extinguishes. I find it interesting that on an international platform, religions such as Hinduism follow rituals that have been unaltered for many centuries and yet, here in the Britain we have ruptured the framework as death has become increasingly professionalised. Hindus in BritainRead MoreReligion Is The Oldest Kinds Of Religion Essay1399 Words   |  6 PagesReligions have been present in this world for thousands of year, providing ancient civilizations answers to their questions and a moral code to abide by. Today, religion still serves a similar purpose and more, forming and changing as time goes on. Though religions today may share some elements, they do share their own opinions and preach of different practices, all of them affect or are affected by the modern world. Two forms of religion are animism versus anthropocentrism. Animism religions areRead MoreThanksgiving Day By Melanie Wallendorf And Eric J. Arnould857 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Consumption Rituals of Thanksgiving Day† by Melanie Wallendorf and Eric J. Arnould. We will also take a look at how Thanksgiving tends to contain family rituals. Thanksgiving is a special time of year where people get together to see family and to indulge in food and good times. Wallendorf and Arnould’s book talk about what tends to take place on Thanksgiving Day and what rituals often take place. I had seen some of the characteristics and rituals mentioned in â€Å"Consumption Rituals of Thanksgiving

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Environmental Pollution, Problems and Control Measures

Environmental pollution, problems and control measures A. Introduction and definition of environmental pollution – We know that, a living organism cannot live by itself. Organisms interact among themselves. Hence, all organisms, such as plants, animals and human beings, as well as the physical surroundings with whom we interact, form a part of our environment. All these constituents of the environment are dependent upon each other. Thus, they maintain a balance in nature. As we are the only organisms try to modify the environment to fulfill our needs; it is our responsibility to take necessary steps to control the environmental imbalances. The environmental imbalance gives rise to various environmental problems. Some of the environmental†¦show more content†¦Ozone (O3) depletion has resulted in UV radiation striking our earth. The gaseous composition of unpolluted air The Gases Parts per million (vol) Nitrogen 756,500 Oxygen 202,900 Water 31,200 Argon 9,000 Carbon Dioxide 305 Neon 17.4 Helium 5.0 Methane 0.97-1.16 Krypton 0.97 Nitrous oxide 0.49 Hydrogen 0.49 Xenon 0.08 Organic vapours ca.0.02 Harmful Effects of air pollution – (a) It affects respiratory system of living organisms and causes bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, pneumonia etc. Carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from motor vehicles and cigarette smoke affects the central nervous system. (b) Due to depletion of ozone layer, UV radiation reaches the earth. UV radiation causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system. (c) Acid rain is also a result of air pollution. This is caused by presence of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur in the air. These oxides dissolve in rain water to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid respectively. Various monuments, buildings, and statues are damaged due to corrosion by acid present in the rain. The soil also becomes acidic. The cumulative effect is the gradual degradation of soil and a decline in forest and agricultural productivity. (d) The green house gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) trap the heat radiated from earth. This leads to an increase in earth’s temperature. (e) Some toxic metals and pesticides also cause airShow MoreRelatedEnvironmental Activism in China1130 Words   |  4 PagesEnvironmental Activism in China I. Introduction China witnesses rapid economic growth after the economic reform in 1978. This economic development brings people great wealth and also a huge cost on the environment. Water and air pollution are among most serious environmental problems, others like soil retrogression and degradation, deforestation, and human health problems coming with these issues are becoming more severe too. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mechanical Ventilation Options Of Dehumidification Engineering Essay Free Essays

string(148) " the capacitor is regenerated with a drying agent dehumidifier \( see figure 11 \) , dividing the regenerative airstream from the supply airstream\." Mechanical airing is the usage of distributed and ducted air to and from centrally located fans in combination with heat recovery or humidification, chilling, heating or filtration. These types of systems are largely common used in infirmaries and private or commercial edifices where the lone manner to carry through liveable indoor air quality is by mechanical airing systems. In metropoliss with big sums of flat and office edifices with a batch of Windowss where the difference between indoor and outside temperature is truly high, mechanical airing will be necessary. We will write a custom essay sample on Mechanical Ventilation Options Of Dehumidification Engineering Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now During hot seasons ( Panama twelvemonth unit of ammunition ) these edifices, and particularly edifices with â€Å" modern Architecture † in which most of the facade country tends to be wholly glazed, experiment overheating. To accomplish equal indoor temperatures it is necessary to pull out the warm air from the inside before supplying cooled air to the inside. This type of system sometimes besides filters pollutants in the air. As these systems modify the entrance air supply, they are generically called A/C units. Waste heat recovery from edifices can besides be accomplished by A/C. When waste heat is recovered, the consumption air will be conducted through a portion of the heat money changer that was antecedently being directed to the ambiance. The cured heat can be used to heat the air when needed or for other intents such as hot H2O proviso. The A/C systems and mechanical airing have an attached cost of energy which is necessary to run the fans, and this sum increases as the measure of filters additions in the edifice and makes it more hard to present the air in the inside. Recycling heat from these machines can cut down energy measures, but the bulk of the clip the usage of A/C and mechanical airing comes with an elevated cost at the beginning, every bit good as throughout care and running. In order to non hold bacterial jobs in the procedure, changeless care should be applied ( Tomczyk 1995, p14 ) . Stanley Mumma, Ph.D. , P.E. , 2001 performed research on the different combinations of the design of out-of-door air, which will now be briefly explained ( Mumma 2001, p28-30 ) . In tropical climes where the sum of wet in the air is the most of import factor to take into consideration when planing the system to chill the edifice, dehumidification can be possible by using either chilling spirals or active drying agents ( liquid or solid ) . Regularly active drying agents are a good option when the DPT is less than 4A °C, and chilling spirals are a better option when the DPT is more than 4A °C. With a good choice and supported deep chilled H2O, competent for accomplishing a DPT of 7A °C seems to be the best option. The spiral competency can be inflected to equilibrate the transeunt burden conditions. Besides, off-peak A/C, which works with H2O thermic sedimentation or ice, can be used. In Configuration 2 ( see figure 10 ) , for the stipulation of the outside air in front of the chilling spiral an heat content wheel which dehumidifies and cools the outside air is used, diminishing the burden on the chilling spiral. In climes where heating for winter is needed, the heat content wheel can be applied to moisturize and heat the out-of-door air, acquiring rid of the demand for a humidifier. To avoid frost creative activity on the wheel preheating is needed. The warming spiral and the runaround heat recovery coils carry through the same as in Configuration 1. Configuration 3 is about the same as Configuration 2, but with the runaround spirals superseded by a reasonable heat recovery wheel for warm up. In Configuration 2 the reasonable wheel wholly avoids the necessity for the warming spiral. The best combination for dedicated out-of-door air systems is supposed to uncouple the indoor reasonable and latent tonss, as made possible in Configuration 3. Figure 10: Dedicated outdoor air system. The chief collectors of condensation in an A/C are the spirals. When there are major sums of humidness in the air, the spirals are traveling to absorb more H2O, which in the long tally means that the A/C is traveling to run for longer periods. The RH does n’t hold any input in the thermoregulator of an A/C, but it has an input in the sum of power to chill the edifice, which affects the thermoregulator by puting it at a unvarying graduated table for longer timeframes. To obtain an indoor degree of humidness around 60 % in hot-humid climes, auxiliary dehumidification must be provided. The bulk of machines in this type of clime addition the sum of humidness by 5 % to 10 % , which happens because the A/C does n’t run at full power ( Christensen, Fang A ; Winkler 2011, p4.7 ) . Xia Fang, Winkler and Christensen in their reaserch for the National Renewable Laboratory 2011 tried out a properly sized 2-ton ( 7-kW ) A/C unit with reasonable heat ratio of 0.8 with different dehumidifier options: ( 1 ) thermoregulator reset, ( 2 ) A/C with energy recovery ventilator ( ERV ) , ( 3 ) heat money changer ( hx ) -assisted A/C, ( 4 ) A/C with capacitor reheat, ( 5 ) A/C with desiccant wheel dehumidifier, ( 6 ) A/C with high-efficiency DX dehumidifier, and ( 7 ) A/C with standard-efficiency DX dehumidifier. In option ( 1 ) the sum of comparative humidness over 60 % caused the overcooling of the infinite by the A/C by 3A °C, which augmented its runtime and tend to overcool the inside, accordingly simplifying conveying the outside RH to the inside due to the high difference between outside and indoor temperatures. On the other manus, option ( 2 ) at part-load conditions was non able to command the humidness entirely. In option ( 4 ) the system was unable to run into the interior humidness and established chilling temperature at the same clip. As in option ( 1 ) the overcooling of the infinite during dehumidification presented the same job and a big sum of A/C energy could be necessary. In option ( 5 ) the desiccant wheel with heat rejected by the capacitor is regenerated with a drying agent dehumidifier ( see figure 11 ) , dividing the regenerative airstream from the supply airstream. You read "Mechanical Ventilation Options Of Dehumidification Engineering Essay" in category "Essay examples" The machine reduces de A/C run clip and provides dry and cool air to the indoors with a wet remotion rate of 120 pints/day ( 56.8 L/day ) . Figure 11: Desiccant wheel dehumidifier. Incorporated machines for humidness control in options ( 4 ) through ( 7 ) increase the sum of energy ingestion of the edifice. RH set points of 50 % make the sum of energy needed higher comparative to 60 % . Similarly, RH programmed at 50 % increases the tally clip for the A/C and the dehumidifier relation to RH programmed at 60 % , with the exclusion of option ( 5 ) for the A/C with desiccant wheel dehumidifier. Within all the engineerings for active dehumidification, option ( 5 ) ( A/C with desiccant wheel dehumidifier ) is the lone that decreases the run clip of the A/C. The A/C burden is partly compensate pending dehumidifier operation due the desiccant wheel dehumidifier provide cool air. 2.6 Cooling burden and its importance in hot-humid conditionss. The heat generated by people, visible radiations and equipment and the heat transferred across a room envelope ( floor, door, Windowss ) make up the entire edifice chilling burden ( see figure 12 ) . External burden is the transportation of heat that comes indoors trough the envelope, while the internal burden is all the remainder. The conditions, constructing type, and design vary the sum of external and internal tonss. Latent tonss ( which affect the wet content ) and reasonable tonss ( which affect the dry bulb temperature ) together make the entire chilling burden temperature. Edifications should be classified as internally or externally loaded. In internally-loaded sophistications the heat addition from residents, contraptions, and visible radiations represents the chilling burden. In most of the instances edifices remain without alterations to the heat coevals from the internal heat beginnings, and, because the internal heat beginnings are greater compared to the heat transportation from the ever-changing milieus, the chilling burden of an internally-loaded sophistication remains about unvarying. In externally-loaded sophistications the heat transportation between the indoors and the precincts compose the chilling burden. In externally loaded edifices the chilling burden varies widely because the out-of-door temperature varies all the clip ( ASHRAE 2011, p87 ) . Figure 12: Beginnings of Cooling Load. The chilling burden extremum depends on the clip of twenty-four hours and out-of-door temperatures. Cooling burden alterations well throughout the twenty-four hours because of the Sun ‘s radiation, which makes it of import to take into consideration the unsure province procedure for ciphering the chilling burden. Not taking the internal beginnings into consideration for the chilling loads computation would non let accomplishment of the needed interior temperature. Therefore, it is really complicated to cipher the chilling burden exactly. The heat that a organic structure absorbs and elevates its temperature without the organic structure experimenting a alteration in its physical province is called reasonable heat. Radiation, convection, and conductivity are the three ways that heat addition can be added to the learned infinite. The measure of reasonable heat addition at a given clip is non the same as the chilling burden at the same minute, due to the heat stored in the sophistication envelope. Merely heat by convection can turn into chilling burden right off. Reasonable heat burden is composed of: outdoor-air infiltration ; heat from residents, visible radiations, and contraptions ; solar additions trough glass ; airing air ; and heat coming in trough ceiling and walls. Latent heat burden is the sum of wet added to the indoor infinite from internal vapour beginnings like residents or equipment, or from out-of-door air in footings of infiltration or airing to guarantee appropriate indoor air quality. Latent heat burden is made up of occupant motion and out-of-door wet from airing and infiltration. It is possible to boil a certain sum of liquid into indoor air of a room or intake a certain sum of H2O with a dehumidifier without altering the room air temperature. However, the vaporization of H2O into the indoor air infinite adds the latent heat of vaporization of the H2O to the entire heat in the air ( Dorsi A ; Krieger 2004, p70 ) The room air does non instantly absorb the measure of heat emitted from people, solar radiation, equipment, etc. ( see figure 12 ) . Alternatively, indoor air ab initio absorbs merely a little sum. The bulk of heat from illuming and Sun is soaked up by surfaces in the inside, such as furniture and floors. Depending on the particular belongingss of the stuffs, the heat addition has a decrement component and a clip hold. As a consequence, this heat will be present or felt by the residents even good after the beginning of heat addition is gone. 2.8 Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems ( DOAS ) When it comes to amount and energy cost of air conditioning in hot-humid climes, one of the chief grounds of expensive monthly energy measures is that air conditioning is non designed to cover with the big sum of humidness in the air ( latent burden ) which is between 70 % and 100 % . With this sum of RH people feel a higher temperature and hence instantly take down the temperature of the thermoregulator, the bulk of times to between 16 and 18 grades Celsius. The attack by and large being taken today is to divide the conditioning of out-of-door air and the handling of the entire latent burden from residuary reasonable chilling ( or warming ) . Such systems are by and large described as dedicated outdoor air being used to cut down the associated energy cost. The residuary reasonable burden on the infinite can be handled by a assortment of methods, by and large hydronic in nature – fan spiral units, beaming panels, chilled beams, for illustration. DOAS or dedicated out-of-door system is a warming, airing and air conditioning system that on a regular basis uses two systems at the same clip: one to cover with the reasonable tonss and another one to manage the latent tonss. Regular warming, airing and air conditioning systems, taking attention of more than one country, nowadays in some instances microbic jobs and limited thermic comfort. The chief intent of DOAS is to accomplish dedicated airing alternatively of airing as one portion of air conditioning. The out-of-door air system will take attention of the latent burden and one portion of the reasonable burden, and another system at the same clip will take attention of the reasonable burden depending on the climes and the machine employed besides DOAS do non use recirculated air, so micro bacterial job through the air wo n’t happen ( Stanley Mumma and Shank 2011, p28-30 ) . Research made by ASHRAE to happen out the best combination of air conditioning that can cover with the humidness in hot-humid climes in order to cut down the energy ingestion, shows that the dedicated air systems working together with reasonable chilling in the terminal units produces the best solution taking into consideration the followers: Employ energy recovery in learned out-of-door air to manage the indoor latent burden and some of the reasonable burden. For good air distribution airing, the airing should non be working together with the indoor conditioning machines. Achieve the treating of the reasonable tonss with a parallel system. Join together the energy conveyance and fire suppression. Stanly A. Mumma, Ph.D. , Pe. made a research on the economic net income of different ceiling radiant chilling panels. The three hydronic systems analyzed are: the radiant panel web, the dedicated outdoor air system chilling spiral, and the fire suppression web. The research came to the decision that it is possible to use the ceiling radiant chilling panels with the dedicated out-of-door systems. The DOAS is indispensable to cover with one hundred per centum of the indoor latent tonss and, hence, the room dew-point temperatures. When the dew-point temperature is controlled below the temperature of the panel surface the condensation on the chilling panel is non an issue ( Mumma 2003, p627-635 ) . Simmons ( 1997, p659-666 ) arbitrated the nest eggs of the ceiling radiant chilling panels systems as follows: 15 % less concluding cost of installing. Reduced fan powers and smaller, more efficient hair-raisers make possible long-run nest eggs. Less care cost because there are no filters and minimal moving parts. Balancing and proving are cheaper and less hard to recognize. The CRCP have an advantage in room infinite, because the ductwork that normally provides all the indoor room with reasonable chilling burden with 13A °C is non needed. When used in new edifices the proprietor can avoid the disbursal by take downing floor highs of the edifice or adding one narrative for every five narratives in relation to regular buildings. The relation between classical air conditioning and dedicated outdoor air system beaming panel is: it consumes about 29 % of the classical conditioning because of a really small SA and RA sum ; it reduces the chilling spiral 7.6 % yearly ; the energy ingestion is 20 five per centum less because of the decrease of the hair-raiser with the energy recovery can salvage up to forty two per centum of the one-year sum energy ingestion in relation to conventional all air VAV. All described above shows the specific merchandise of the DOAS, but is adequate to show the capacities on cut downing the sum of energy ingestion by the DOAS in combination with the beaming panel chilling system. It is shown that this combination of air conditioning consumes more pumping power in relation to traditional air conditioning because it is required to accomplish the circulation through the beaming panels. However, the lessening of energy ingestion in fan and hair-raiser which comes from the energy recovery is more of import than the addition in the power for pumping ( Mumma Stanley 2011, p635 ) , 3. Building demands 3.1 Quality of the Air In a conference of the United States Department of Health and Human Services in 2009 it was reported that in 20 five per centum of the unwellnesss worldwide that can be prevented, the chief cause is hapless environmental quality of the air, and that taint is besides one of the grounds for 50 thousand premature deceases. The bad quality of air inside edifices is the chief cause of these jobs. The chief causes for bad indoor air abode quality are: Average building and design. Bad status of the air conditioning or heating systems, Sustainable design in edifices ( insularity and enclosure ) , The usage of man-made coating, stuffs and chattels. As mentioned in chapter two, minimising the filtrations and isolation in the skeleton of the edifice is of import because this blocks the temperature to accomplish better indoor temperatures and temperature loss, and besides avoid H2O leaks and command the humidness to guarantee a proper circulation of the air and avoids dead musca volitanss which are the causes of cast, elevated allergens, and big sums of interior wet from uncontrolled humidness and H2O leaks. The sum of contaminated indoor air in a residential edifice is about two to 100 times more than the 1s out-of-doorss in publications made by the United states section of wellness and homo services 2009. Building contraptions, stuffs, furniture and cleansing merchandises are one of the most common contaminations. Well stray edifice building and air tight sealing have at the same clip a job because they tend to barricade fresh air coming indoors. Sometimes they besides promote noxious and unacceptable olfactory properties. Buildings designed with a snug construction in order to continue energy losingss are inclined to show more jobs in the air quality than edifices with a light skeleton ( sometimes called leaky edifices ) , which the sum of contaminated indoor air does n’t travel out of the edifice. Besides, filtration in edifices makes it impossible to command and mensurate the air that goes to the interior through different gaps. The solution to better the air quality is to diminish the beginning of pollution and increase airing. There is no difference between air quality in places and residential edifices but, however, people populating in residential edifices can non do utmost alterations in airing that people populating in a individual household place can. However, there are different ways to do alterations, like clear the beginning of natural air or usage Windowss to guarantee the entryway of fresh air. Old edifices that have had preservation belongingss or contraptions good installed and efficient places can accomplish good criterion air quality, because a batch of contaminations are blocked from traveling inside the edifice and the 1s that go indoors subsequently can be removed with the dedicated out-of-door air systems ( DOAS ) described in the old chapter. Buildings with these features soak out the high degrees of wet and their skeleton ensures that contaminated air does non travel indoors. Low breathing stuffs and furniture are besides employed to guarantee a proper degree of pollutants. In humid climes, the occupants ‘ most common wont to cut down the cost of energy ingestion is to turn the air conditioning off during weekends and at dark. This pattern is normally the chief factor in the creative activity of wet in these types of climes. Infiltration will take a big sum of out-of-door humidness that will acquire soaked by flat stuffs and constituents when the air conditioning is turned off. In add-on, little degrees of chilling tonss do non let the machine to run at appropriate velocity to be able to soak out the air humidness every bit good as the humidness soaked by the edifice constituents. High degrees of condensation and wet concentration will put on debatable countries if the dry bulb temperature during working clip is sufficient. Degrees of around 70 per centum of comparative humidness can do mold growing inside a edifice in 24 to 48 hours ( United States Environmental Protection Agency 2010 ) . Rather than the indoor air temperature, surface temperatures inside the edifice are in close relationship with mold growing, but these two temperatures are wall to palisade in relation. Mold causes immense injury to the indoor air quality and besides to the edifice ‘s lastingness ; hence, it should be closely monitored. When it comes to footings of air conditioning, means that the edifice does non hold natural airing or a connexion with outside air, hence all its constituents should work independently from the outside temperature and clime, with the exclusion of the machine employed, and when a room needs natural airing, consideration should be taken to guarantee no losingss in efficiency. In hot humid climates the figure of people busying the indoor infinite sets the guideline as to the sum of airing required to guarantee a proper air-conditioned inside. In large suites such as life suites or dining suites, merely fresh air with disposal or remotion would be required, and in other instances the recirculation of air would be an option when there is a low sum of residents and merely a small fresh air is indispensable. Electro inactive precipitation filters are in most instances the most efficient 1s which are inexpensive to run and really good in taking away all types of air solid drosss but are a small spot expensive in initial cost. These types of filters are the lone option to filtrate the air in industrial procedures. Other filter options are fabric, syrupy and street arab. 3.2 Comfort zone The indoor temperature of a edifice is profoundly affected by local clime. Solar incursion through Windowss and solar heat gained through the edifice skeleton heat the edifice all twenty-four hours long. To accomplish an indoor liveable temperature it is necessary to take down the interior temperature in relation with the out-of-door one by using inactive methods, air conditioning or a combination of both. When it comes to soothe by the temperature in a edifice, the indoor air temperature is non the most of import point to take into consideration, alternatively the local physical and climatic elements should be taken as a focal point. Inside the edifice the heat exchange by the tegument of its residents is of singular value due to chill and warm countries and the Sun radiation exposure. Humidity and air motion besides affect indoor thermic comfort in hot-humid conditionss, because the difference in temperature from outside in relation with the interior varies a batch. Normally when outside temperature is 30 six grades Celsius people tend to plan air conditioned thermoregulator around 17 grades, which is a large daze at the minute person enters or goes out of an air-conditioned edifice. Human existences come ining a learned infinite coming from a wholly different outside ambient will happen the indoor 1s really uncomfortable for about one hr ( Dorsi A ; Krigger 2004, p48 ) . Humidity control is the chief challenge to accomplish a comfort zone in tropical humid climes, when 50 per centum comparative humidness is the end. Levels normally change in little sums which do non let the systems or machines to take a breath. This was a job before because people avoided the usage of mechanical airing to cut down the sum of wet due to the expensive cost, doing it about impossible to accomplish an indoor comfort zone. This is possible now to accomplish with mechanical airing as mentioned in old chapters without holding excess costs. Physical environment is the get downing point of the comfort zone in a edifice, which is straight structured by: visible radiation, noise, temperature, humidness and odor. In this thesis humidness is traveling to be studied farther, because of the importance in hot-humid conditions states like Panama. Residents in office edifices are more productive in their work when the atmosphere temperature is comfy. Accidents occur more when the indoor temperature goes outside the scope of 16 to twenty four grades Celsius. Nevertheless, humidness is closely linked with temperature when it comes to soothe zones. Normally it is misunderstood that the air impacting comfort is the 1 scaled by humidness metres and thermometers ; alternatively, it is the air that gets in contact with residents teguments. This air will lift and be substituted with other air as it is warmed by the heat in people ‘s tegument heat. A manner to do the chilling of the organic structure and vaporization of sudating more efficient is by traveling off the air rapidly by natural zephyr or fans, because the addition in vapour of sweat, increases the uncomfortableness. Recommended indoor air temperature ( OSHA ) should be maintained at 20 to twenty four point five, with a comparative humidness from 20 to sixty per centum and a dew point temperature from minus four until 15 grades Celsius. At low degrees of dew point about 10 grades Celsius, working together with decreased indoor temperatures, the organic structure needs minor chilling. Low degrees of dew point work truly good together with elevated temperatures, merely as outstanding low humidness of the air ( see table 7 ) licenses effectual chilling. Table 7: Relation between dew point, humidness in the human comfort. Temperature is easier to experience by worlds than the sum of humidness in the air, hence people inside a edifice bash non be given to comprehend unwanted degrees of humidness from a temperature criterion. In hot-humid climes the basic response to high degrees of wet inside a room is to take down the thermoregulator of the air conditioning, which increases the sum of energy and makes more likely the overcooling and cast growing because of wet canals. The sum of Co2 concentration besides has an of import focal point point in a room, which depends on the undermentioned factors: measure of residents, volume of the room, activities of the residents, sum of clip people are inside the room, and the sum of fresh air traveling to the inside. This is more likely to go a job in office edifices, mills and infirmaries, but for abodes where the sum of residents and countries are really low this is non a large issue. 2.2.4 Integrating Advance Humidity Control to Reduce Energy Use The National Center for Energy Management and Building Technologies ( NCEMBT ) did a study about incorporating advanced humidness controls to accomplish nest eggs in the energy measures, where eleven different system combinations where studied ( see figure 25 ) . ( Harriman, Plager A ; Kosar DR 1997, p15-25 ) Figure 13: 11 Combination of systems for enhance dehumidification. All systems presented in figure 25 to carry through the existent heat content decrease in the process, use the conventional DX chilling spiral. The impact of chilling and at the same clip utilizing elements to alter the spiral capacity from reasonable burden to latent burden, consequence in diminishing the reasonable heat ratio of the system. As the systems that utilize desiccant dehumidifiers downstream alternatively of upstream chilling spirals, needed child system capacity and less sum of energy, merely three of the systems showed above were taken for farther surveies: figure five, six and eleven without optional energy money changer. As the focal point point of the probe was assorted and individual way air systems, DOAS and double systems ( three, seven and eight ) were non taken into consideration. Combination figure five ( HX-DX ) utilizes a reasonable heat money changer rounding the chilling spiral, which in order to take down the temperature of the air coming indoors, utilizes the air traveling out of the chilling spiral as a heat sink, doing it possible to take down the setup dew point, hence cut downing the reasonable heat wireless. Apparatus dew point represents the release degree of humidness from a system. It shows if a machine without lift in the air flow needed to accomplish the reasonable burden can run into the latent burden. Combination figure six ( DD-DX ) had similar consequences but using an heat content money changer, due to the latent and reasonable energy money changers, before traveling inside the chilling spiral, the humidness of the air traveling interior is soaked out every bit good. This excess dehumidification decreases the setup dew point in comparing with combination figure five. Combination figure eleven ( DX-DD ) decreases the dew point ( DP ) of the air in the chilling spiral to accomplish even less apparatus dew point and reasonable heat wireless by using a desiccant dehumidifier. In comparing with the other combinations, its reasonable heat ratio does non cut down with airflow velocity. The desiccant dehumidifier in this system can convey out a dew point near zero grades Celsius and decreases or avoids the congealing of the chilling spiral, which in a traditional DX system happens. The drying agent besides has a disability change overing the latent burden or wet into reasonable heat, which is liberated into the provided air. Traditional machinery with a DX spiral managed by a thermoregulator is non capable of bring forthing the little sum of reasonable heat wireless which is indispensable in hot-humid climes to accomplish the humidness loaded aerating tonss. In tropical climes where the usage of specialised and intense humidness controls is needed, this combination of enhanced humidification works with a lower sum of energy power. Lowering energy public presentation even more is possible by utilizing double way DX machines in combination with dedicated out-of-door air systems ( studied in chapter 2.1.8 ) , conditioning twosome with a degage DX spiral for residuary chiefly reasonable ratio chilling and residuary one. 2.2.5 Functionality High humidness degrees in tropical climes make it about impossible to accomplish a good quality of indoor air in a room ; air conditioning the bulk of the clip merely cools the outside air but does non take attention of commanding humidness. The systems employed to cut down the degree of humidness in the air should non increase the sum of energy ingestion, because people would non desire to use these machines, even though the quality of the air it is non the appropriate 1. Bad planning in the airing of a room even with new machines and mechanisms before residents move in, consequences in a bad quality indoor air which does n’t suit the criterion demands for the residents ‘ wellness and besides amendss the construction of the edifice. From the get downing the predesigned ends should be taken earnestly in sing the planning, to accomplish besides good degrees of energy ingestion. Before an old edifice is adapted into usage, all the airing elements should be checked in all locations to avoid any future jobs, which subsequently on would be hard and really expensive to rectify. Afterwards when the edifice is occupied it must acquire care frequently to look into the operation of the airing systems by supervising degrees of the temperature and quality of the interior air and the air watercourse in every room. Ventilation ducts besides have to be cleaned frequently ( Christensen, Fang A ; Winkler 2011, p67 ) . The alterations in edifice demands such as insularity in walls, roof and edifice skeleton, Windowss, contraptions and illuming have made a important alteration by diminishing the heat tonss of interior suites and accordingly the necessities for reasonable chilling. On the other manus, the elements which impact the latent burden or humidness, like airing demands and residents stay the same. Buildings that meet these demands the bulk of the clip need systems to work on the latent burden alternatively of on the reasonable burden. Bad control in the humidness is linked many times to the inability of traditional air conditioning to pull off the wet loads. The more the efficiency in modern air conditioning, the less its capableness in wet remotion. Air conditioning does the cooling, it reduces the temperature of the air or reasonable chilling and at the same clip lowers the humidness in the air or latent chilling by distilling a per centum of the concentration of H2O in the air. A manner to mensurate the degree of effectivity of a system to get by with wet remotion is by the reasonable heat ratio, which is the entire chilling capacity of reasonable and latent burden. Lowering the reasonable heat ratio increases the capacity of dehumidification or chilling capacity ( Christensen, Fang A ; Winkler 2011, p88 ) . Traditional air conditioning systems normally deal with the reasonable burden before the latent burden, therefore the indoor infinite degree of wet goes up from the one wanted, which is about 50 to sixty five per centum, doing the proliferation of bacteriums and mold growing. The best manner to accomplish good airing and air conditioning systems in hot-humid climes, is by utilizing the edifice and machines as designed and doing possible the comparative humidness to modulate when the designed infinite status is accomplished. Making possible the air conditioning to cover with the latent and reasonable burden individually consequences in doing it possible to cut down the sum of energy ingestion. 4. Simulation in TRNSYS 4.1Building description and activity agendas The office room is confronting north/south ( 29m broad, 29m long ) with a individual glaze window covering the full frontage South. It has 841m2 of country and 3.70m of tallness. As an office, it has machines, computing machines and unreal visible radiations chiefly during working hours. Material used for walls on the life room, U-values and conduction are described in table 8 and 9. Building building Detail External wall Best common wall Shocking Concrete slab, isolation ( back and direct boundary ) Window Scorch glazing Roofing Plastboard, fire glass comforter, roof deck Table 8: Building stuff specification Type U-values ( conductivity ) U-Value ( overall ) ( W/w2K ) Floor 2.567 1.787 Roof 1.785 1.369 Window 0.855 5.8 External wall 66.667 5.405 Table 9: U-values of block walls No. Description Type Power ( kJ/hr ) Measure 1 Personal computer with proctor 1.440 10 2 Artificial lighting Fluorescent 129.6 93 Table 10: Machines, illuming and computing machines used in the office Occupancy agenda was estimated during 24 hours 7 yearss a hebdomad. 4.2 Description of the cooling-dehumidifier system Some trial were made utilizing conventional air conditioning system dwelling on: fans, heat pump, soaking up hair-raisers and dehumidifier chilling spiral, but high sums of energy usage were found, due to the chilling spiral has to cover with high degrees of humidness and at the same clip accomplish temperature needed. Sometimes by altering the sums of indoor H2O temperature and flow rate of H2O, the comparative humidness was achieve by 50 % but the supply air temperature was below the criterions. A new system was employ using the theoretical account of a dedicated outdoor air system ( Mumma 2001 ) . An heat content and a reasonable wheel were employed to accomplish 2 points of transportation of energy between supply and exhaust air coming in frontal waies ( see figure 14 ) . On the Enthalpy wheel ( effectivity of 80 per centum ) exchange of reasonable and latent burden energy occurs, by the transportation of heat and humidness between the supply and exhaust air. Figure 14: System of managing air with heat content and reasonable wheel. As mentioned above the system decrease the chilling demand of the chilling spiral, by cut downing the degrees of humidness and temperature before it goes inside the chilling spiral. Cooling spirals was designed to take more the degree of humidness at 13 grades Celsius dew point. After the supply air was treated by the chilling spiral it goes inside a reasonable wheel with 70 per centum effectivity where it temperature goes down at around 20 one degrees Celsius dry bulb by soaking up the hot from the exhaust air. This exhaust air decreases its temperature in the reasonable wheel and when it goes back to the heat content wheel ( see figure 14 ) aid to chill the fresh air coming in to the inside. 4.4 Room simulation and consequences One simulation was made in November ( see table 11 ) , which is one of the months with highest degrees of humidness due to the start of the rainy season, to mensurate the dry bulb and moisture bulb temperature come ining and traveling out from one constituent to a the following 1. Taking as an mean outside dry bulb temperature of 29 and outside air wet bulb temperature of 24 grades Celsius. Estimating the system would be working for 720 hours and uses 10,000 cfm. Table11: Inlet temperatures of different constituents of the system. After the system was modeled all twelvemonth to cipher the sum of energy usage by each constituent of the system ( see table 12 ) . Table 12: Annual energy ingestion by constituent ( 8760 hours ) . The exhaust air is estimated to be 90 per centum of the supply air and the supply air achieved was about 22 grades Celsius and 55 % comparative humidness. By a usage of 8 hours a twenty-four hours Monday to Friday generates a monthly energy usage of 2544 kWh. Panamas mean cost per kWh is.20 cents of Dollar. Decision Due to the roar in its building sector in 2008 and its turning economic system, international imperativeness started naming Panama as the â€Å" new Dubai of the Americas. † ( the economic expert 2011 ) Although this fast development has shaped Panama ‘s beautiful skyline, it did non include much green building. Consequently, sustainable edifice design is greatly needed in Panama City, where important energy is consumed by residential and commercial edifices, the bulk of which are air-conditioned 24/7 and use floor-to-ceiling individual glass Windowss. Human comfort is straight related to temperature and humidness degrees. Peoples inside a edifice tend to be more comfy when air is dryer and marginally warmer than when the air is cooler and humid. Increased humidness leads people to take down their thermoregulators because moist air gives the esthesis of a heater ambiance. This thesis showed the tight relationship between temperature and dew point temperature, which must be considered when planing air conditioning systems for hot-humid climes. To better air conditioning systems, applied scientists should understand the factors that affect indoor temperature. In these climes, the big difference between outside air temperatures ( ~37A °C ) and thermostat-controlled interior temperatures ( ~16A °C ) -a alteration of ~21A °C-shapes urban air-conditioning design. Promenades, offices, eating houses and places must use electricity to bridge this spread in temperature, which besides affects the wellness of edifice residents and filtration of incoming air. Changeless alterations in temperature as people go between indoor and out-of-door environments may bring on sweat due to high out-of-door humidness degrees, and may take to respiratory and pneumonic jobs. The difference between interior and outside temperatures critically affects both A/C burden and edifice construction. Although most systems are designed to accomplish higher indoor air force per unit area than a edifice ‘s surrounding environment, escape of out-of-door air into conditioned suites can be greatly affect indoor humidness. Unintended escape is normally due to opening and shutting of Windowss and leaks in the edifice construction, which may take to badly draughty insides. Structure filtration can be reduced through excess attention during the building and usage of such building stuffs as double-glazed Windowss. Air-locks or air-tightness between A/C and non-A/C infinites is a good manner to diminish filtration through doors. Where temperature differences are little, vapor blockers may be utilized in outer walls. Parameters for simulations to happen an optimum system for a peculiar humidness degree and temperature ca n’t be found in surveies of the specific metropolis sing energy usage, building stuffs, air conditioning types, and indoor air features by constructing type. A chilled H2O chilling spiral simulated with a dynamic mold tool ( TRNSYS 17 ) achieved coveted indoor criterions for humidness but delivers a degree of temperature below the criterions ( ~23A °C ) , increasing the energy usage by the chilling spiral so much. After a Dedicated outdoor air system was analyzed with Panama City clime conditions, accomplishing really good degrees of humidness and temperature criterions Ideally, criterions for high humidness control could be implemented in the Panamanian building and airing codifications, to make consciousness and execution of good indoor air quality. LITERATURE REFERENCES ASHRAE: Handbook of Fundamentalss, Parsons, U.S.A 2011. Brandemuehl A ; Khattar MJ. 2002. Separating the V in HVAC: A Dual-Path Approach. ASHRAE Journal 202 44 ( 5 ) : 37-42. BRIG, GEN and Abbot Henry. Problems of the Panama Canal including climatology. The Macmillan company. London.1907 Brundrett Geoff, Kittler Reinhold A ; Harriman Lew: Humidity control design usher for commercial and institutional edifices, ASHRAE, U.S.A 2001. Dorsi Chris A ; Krigger John: Residential energy, cost and comfort for bing edifices, Saturn, U.S.A 2004. Gowri K, Jarnagin R A ; Winiarski D: Infiltration patterning guidelines for commercial edifice energy analysis. US section of energy.2009. Harriman Lew: The ASHRAE usher for edifices in hot and humid climes 2nd edition, ASHRAE, U.S.A 2009. Harriman LG, Plager D and Kosar DR. Dehumidification and Cooling Loads from Ventilation Air. ASHRAE Journal 39 ( 11 ) : 37-45, 1997. Henderson H.I A ; Rudd A: Monitored indoor wet and temperature conditions in humid-climate US abodes. ASHRAE minutess 113 ( 1 ) : 435-49,2007. Kosar DR. Dehumidification System Enhancements. ASHRAE Journal 48 ( 2 ) : 48-58. 2006 National secretary of energy. Panama: Panama chamber of building: hypertext transfer protocol: // Parker Mattew: Panama Fever, doubleday, New York 2008. Rosaler Robert A ; Grimm Nils: HVAC systems and constituents enchiridion, McGraw, U.S.A 1997. Sherman, Max Howard. Thesis ( PH.D. ) — University OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY, 1980. Simmonds P. Practical applications of radiant warming and chilling to keep comfort conditions. ASHRAE.U.S.A 1996. Simmonds, P. Radiant systems offer users greater comfort control. Energy Users News, vol. 34, March, pp. 34-35.1997 The economic expert print edition. July 14th. United states 2011 Tomczyk, John: Troubleshooting and Servicing Modern Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems. U.S.A 1995. Drew Jane A ; Fry Maxwell: Tropical architecture in the dry and humid zones, Batsford Limited London 1964. Wolfgang Lauber, Tropical architecture. Munich 2005. Christensen Dane, Fang Xia A ; Winkler John: Using energyplus to execute dehumidification anaylisis on edifice United States places, HVAC A ; R Journal, June 2011. EPA Green Buildings Project. ( 2012 ) Retrieved September 15, 2012. hypertext transfer protocol: // Mumma, Stanley: â€Å" Designing dedicated outdoor air system † ASHRAE U.S.A 2001. FIGURES REFERENCES Figure 1: Economist Intelligent Unit. Figure 2: hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 3: BRIG, GEN and Abbot Henry. Problems of the Panama Canal including climatology. The Macmillan company. London.1907 Figure 4: hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 5: Cambefort y Boza designers. hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 6: HOPSA Panama . hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 10: Mumma Stanley: Planing a dedicated outdoor air system, ASHRAE Journal 2011. Figure 11: Christensen Dane, Fang Xia A ; Winkler John: Using energyplus to execute dehumidification anaylisis on edifice United States places, HVAC A ; R Journal, June 2011. Figure 12: hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 13: Kosar Douglas: Integration Advance humidness control to cut down energy usage † . University of cardinal Florida 2007. Figure 14: Mumma Stanley: Energy Conservation Benefits of a dedicated Outdoor Air System with Parallel Sensible Cooling by Ceiling beaming Panels † . ASHRAE Journal 2003. DIAGRAMS REFERENCES Diagram 1: CAPAC: Panamanian chamber of building. Diagram 2: CAPAC: Panamanian chamber of building. Diagram 3: Meteonorm Software Diagram 4: Meteonorm Software Diagram 5: Meteonorm Software Diagram 6: Meteonorm Software and Transient simulation plan. TRNSYS 17. Tables Mentions Table 1: CAPAC: Panamanian chamber of building. Table 2: BRIG, GEN and Abbot Henry. Problems of the Panama Canal including climatology. The Macmillan company. London.1907 Table 3: Wolfgang Lauber, Tropical architecture. Munich 2005. Table 4: Marelisa Chanis de Pages. Table 5: National Secretary of energy. Table 6: National Secretary of energy. Table 7: Horstmeyer Steve: Relative Humidity, Relative to What? The Dew point Temperature a better attack † . Ohio, USA 2006 Table 8: Transeunt simulation plan. TRNSYS 17. Table 9: Transeunt simulation plan. TRNSYS 17. Table 10: Transeunt simulation plan. TRNSYS 17. Table 11: Transeunt simulation plan. TRNSYS 17 and personal computations. Table 12: Transeunt simulation plan. TRNSYS 17 and personal computations. Declaration of the Master ‘s Thesis I hereby affirm that the maestro thesis at manus is my ain written work and that I have used no other beginnings and AIDSs others than those indicated. ( Topographic point ) ___________ ( Date ) _________ ( Signature ) ___________________ How to cite Mechanical Ventilation Options Of Dehumidification Engineering Essay, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Drugs And Alcohol Essay Example For Students

Drugs And Alcohol Essay One of the biggest problems people cope with today is the addiction of drugs andalcohol. The effects of taking these drugs are dangerous: domestic violence,crimes, accidents, sexual assault or becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. Differentstudies of domestic violence show a big involvement of high quantities ofalcohol and other drugs. These increase the level of aggression. Alcoholism andchild abuse, including incest, seem tightly intertwined as well. Parents, beingunder alcohol influence, abuse their children in a bestial way. The mostimportant thing in this statement is that not only the abusers tend to be heavydrinkers, but the children abused will also become drinkers or drug dependents,and they will also abuse at that time. In a family, the alcoholic women have anegative verbal conflict with her husband than a non-alcoholic woman has. Thisis a source of misunderstanding between family members, and the results could bevery tragic. The family could end up in divorce or even crime. Fro m violencebetween parents due to abuse of alcohol or drugs, the children begin to feel thepassion and need for taking drugs and drinking alcohol. Most of them will havesome experience. Most will understand that taking drugs of any kind doesnt havea happy-end. Others, will continue to ruin their lives, killing themselves asdays go by (Teens 1/2). The first drug accepted by law is alcohol. One major reason that alcohol is very wanted by teenagers up to age of 21 isbecause it is prohibited for buying and consuming under that age. As long asthere will be this law of prohibition for buying and consuming alcohol under 21years of age, more and more teenagers will begin to drink more and more alcohol,because this one law of the nature: people try to not respect the law, to showthe others how tough they are. This statement is supported by some researchesmade in parallel in Romania and United States. Even though in Romania the levelof life is much lower than in United States, the percentage of people consumingalcohol and drugs is very low. This is not a result of pureness, because for adrug dependent, drugs are his main food. This is a result of a very stricteducation that adults give to teenagers; this is a result of the education thatparents give their own children. As a result of excessive drinking of alcohol,the person involved is exposed to very different illnesses, which affect theirbody (Alcohol 1/2). The second important drug accepted by law istobacco. Started at a young age, the smoker usually ends up in drugs morepowerful and very likely to tobacco, like marijuana, heroin,cocaine/crack, and amphetamines. The smoker is exposed at differentillnesses, like lung cancer and throat cancer. The American LiverFoundation has developed an innovative program called Foundations forDecision-Making, to teach young children that alcohol and other drugs areharmful (Alcohol 2/2). Alcohol and other drugs interfere withmessages to ones brain and alter his/her perceptions, emotions, vision,hearing, and coordination. Alcohol and drugs affect his/her judgment and canlead to dangerous behavior that puts him/her at risk of: accidental injuries,car/boat crashes, sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancy, sexualassault, fights, and trouble with the law. Statistics show that more than halfof drownings and fatal falls are alcohol or drug related. Half of physicali njuries sustained on college campuses stem from alcohol use. Almost half of allfatal car/boat crashes are alcohol or drug related. Alcohol and drugs are alsoinvolved in many cases of burglaries, and in many acquaintance rapes. More than70% of total cases of violent behavior on campuses involves alcohol. Accordingto Youth, Alcohol and Other Drugs, last month about 9.5million Americans between ages 12-20 had at least one drink, ofthese 4.4 million were binge drinkers (consuming five or more drinks in a rowon a single occasion) including 1.9 million heavy drinkers (consuming five ormore drinks on the same occasion on at least five different days) (1/4). Despite the fact the purchase of alcohol is illegal for most college students,the alcohol is the most widely used drug on campuses. Among collegestudents in one survey, rates of binge drinking were highest among Caucasians,43.5 percent for males and 24.4% for females; among African-Americans the rateswere 24.8% for males and 5.4% for females; and among Asians, 32% for males and20% for females (Youth 2/4). Among teenagers who bingedrink, 39% say they drink alone; 58% drink when they are upset; 30% drink whenthey are bored; and 37% drink to feel high (2/4). These incidents, relatedto drugs and alcohol, are costly in two terms: one of human potential and theother, which is money. The number of cases of violence and crimes on the streetsis growing. According to Minnesota Institute of Public Health, the records showthat more than 1.1 million annual arrests for illicit drug violations,almost 1.4 million arrests for driving while intoxicated, 480,000 arrests forliquor law violations and 704 ,000 arrests for drunkenness come to a total of 4.3million arrests for alcohol and other drug statutory crimes. That total accountsfor over one-third of all arrests in this country (Violence1/3). The drugs have the capacity to decrease pain, not only by decreasing theperception of pain, but also by altering the reaction to it. Although they havesedative proprieties when used in large doses, they are not used primarily forsedation. In large doses, the drugs destroy the nervous system. They kill thecells. According to Encarta 98 Encyclopedia, the brain loses somecapacity of memorization and learning as cells die (Aging np). Artificial Intelligence EssayCocaine effects are short lived, and once the drug leaves the brain, the userexperiences a coke crash that includes depression, irritability, andfatigue. Powder Cocaine cannot be smoked unless chemically altered usingdangerous freebasing technique. Late summer of 1985, New York City drugdealers put an end to the need for freebasing powder cocaine. These samedrug entrepreneurs would revolutionize the sale of cocaine and bring terror tothe streets of America (Cocaine 1/2). The exact inventors of crack cocaineare unknown, but the lasting effects of their discovery are well documented. Thebenefits of cocaine base (crack) for the drug dealers have only been surpassedby the problems it has created in general. In many ways, crack is the perfectdrug. Powder cocaine is messy and hard to handle, crack however is a hard rock-litesubstance easy to handle and conceal. Powder cocaine has to be inhaled orinjected. Inhaling cocaine creates a variety of sinus and nasal problems. Inhaling also takes longer for the drug to take effect. Injecting powder cocaineto get a better and faster high became very unpopular with advent of the A.I.D.S. crisis. Powder cocaine is frequently cut or mixed with a variety of substancesin order to raise profit margins of drug dealers. This made purchasing powdercocaine more hazardous for the drug abuser as they cannot be sure of the contentof the drug they are buying. Finally, freebasing was thought too dangerous aprospect for most cocaine users. Crack cocaine overcame all these detractors tococaine usage. According to many studies, crack is easily manufactured frompowder cocaine without dangerous solvents, using common household ingredients. Crack can be smocked, creating an intense and immediate high. There is no needfor needles, nor is there the damage to nasal and sinus passages associated withsnorting cocaine. Crack cocaine is nearly pure cocaine. Dosages of crackare smaller, meaning there is no need for diluting the cocaine with varioussubstances. Crack is more profitable for the dealer because of the smallerdosages. These units also mean it is cheaper for the user to purchase a smallamount and get high. The cheaper price per unit also makes it available tobroader market. But there is a greater asset crack provides for the dealer. Crack cocaine can be instantly addictive. The symptoms of abuse are consistentto those of powder cocaine, except crack provides a more intense high. Heavyperspiration and ear ringing are also not uncommon when smoking crack. Again,the intense addictive properties of crack often cause the abusers to go onbinges during which they continuously smoke crack until they drop from fatigueor run out of money to purchase more. Marijuana is likely to be mentioned incombination with other substances, particularly alcohol and cocaine. Between thefirst half of 1994 and the first half of 1995, marijuana/hashish-relatedepisodes rose from 19,100 to 25,200, an increase of 32 percent. During this timeperiod, statistically significant increases were found in the following agegroups: among persons aged 18-25 years, a 25 percent increase (from 6,400 to8,000); among persons aged 26-34 years, a 39 percent increase (from 5,300 to7,300); and among persons aged 35 years and older, a 37 percent increase (from4, 100 to 5,600). No change was observed among persons aged 12-17 years(Marijuana 2/4). Between the first half of 1994 and the first half of1995, the number of marijuana/hashish-related episodes rose by 43 percent forblacks (from 6,900 to 9,800), by 28 percent for whites (from 8,900 to 11,400). There was no change for Hispanics. During the same time period,marijuana/hashish-related episodes increased by 34 percent for men (from 13,100to 17,500) and by 26 percent for women (from 5,800 to 7,300). Methamphetamine isa drug from Amphetamines group. Between 1988 and 1991, there was a decrease inmethamphetamine (speed)-related emergency department episodes; however, from thesecond half of 1991 through the first half of 1995, methamphetamine(speed)-related episodes increased 346 percent (from 2,400 to 10,600). Thenumber of methamphetamine (speed)-related episodes continued to increase betweenthe first half of 1994 and the first half of 1995 (from 7,800 to 10,600). Druguse for non-medical purposes occurs throughout society. For this reason the 1978Presidents Commission on Mental Health did not recommend health andmental-health assistance except to persons whose drug use was intense andcompulsive. The commission identified heroin as the number one drug problembecause heroin addiction may lead to criminal behavior to pay for the drug. Adding to the problem is the fact that chemically similar drugs can besynthesized and sold on the street because they are not yet classified ascontrolled substances (Encarta np). BibliographyDrug Addictions and Drug Abuse. Internet Nov. 13, 1998. Availableat: Cocaine Co. Cocaine. Internet Dec. 04,1998. Available at: Health Org. Heroin. Internet Dec. 03,1998. Available at: Health Org. Marijuana. Internet Dec. 03, 1998. Available at: Heroin Co. Heroin. Interent Dec. 04, 1998. Available at: Alcohol andDrugs. Internet Nov. 18, 1998. Available at: Health Teens. Alcohol and Other Drugs. Internet Nov. 11,1998. Available at: Microsoft Encarta 98Encyclopedia (2CDs). Effects of Aging. Microsoft Encarta 98Encyclopedia (2CDs). Alcoholism. Minnesota Institute of PublicHealth. Violence and Crime Alcohol and Other Drugs. InternetNov. 13, 1998. Available at: National Council onAlcoholism and Drug Dependence. Youth, Alcohol and Other Drugs.Internet Nov. 13, 1998. Available at: NationalCouncil on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. Alcohol and Other Drugs in theWorkplace. Internet Nov. 13, 1998. Available at: Council On Alcohol ; Drug Abuse Houston. Drinking Driving. Internet Nov. 13, 1998. Available at: Care

Monday, March 23, 2020

Reservation free essay sample

Bus reservation system deals with maintenance of records of details of each passenger who had reserved a seat for a journey for various places in Bangalore. The said bus reservation company has 60 routes operating from Bangalore among those are the regular or ordinary, semi-luxury and super-deluxe buses. These systems should contain information about its passenger like date of reservation, their destination, and number of seats and cancellation of their reservation. The system should meet the requirements of the business to make it interactive and user friendly. Our project is to computerize traveling company to manage data, so that all the transactions become fast and lessen any possibly error in transaction like calculation mistake, bill generation and other things. It replaces all the paper work. It keeps records of all bills also, giving to ensure 100% successful implementation of the computerized Bus reservation system. It also shows reports of the transaction done by the company to monitor their daily operation. We will write a custom essay sample on Reservation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Objective/s Main Objective: To develop an effective and functional passenger reservation system. Specific Objectives: a. To record data of various routes originating from Bangalore b. To verify that the total distance travelled by each passenger does not exceeded 3000km. c. To provide a facility for cancellation. Analysis Traveling is a large growing business in or country. Bus reservation system deals with maintenance of records of details of each passenger who had reserved a seat for a journey. It also includes maintenance of information like schedule and details of each bus. We observed the working of the Bus reservation system and after going through it, we get to know that there are many operations, which they have to do manually. It takes a lot of time and causes many errors. Due to this, sometimes a lot of problems occur and they were facing many disputes with customers. To solve the above problem, and further maintaining records of items, seat availability for customers, price of per seat, bill generation and other things, we are offering this proposal of reservation system. Our reservation system has two modules. First module helps him to reserve a ticket. Using second module he can cancel a reserved ticket. Requirements Definition Functional Requirements a. Should be able to create a new login for accessing the reservation facility. . See current reservations on different buses along with the details. The system should automatically show amount of money needs to be pay for selected seats. Non- Functional Requirements a. The administrator shall usually do anything on the system in all forms. Administrator is responsible for updating and maintenance of the systems content such as adding/ removing information about the system.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Alexander the Great, Greek Military Leader

Alexander the Great, Greek Military Leader Alexander the Great was the son of King Philip II of Macedonia and one of his wives, Olympias, a daughter of the non-Macedonian King Neoptolemus I of Epirus. At least, thats the conventional story. As a great hero, there are other more miraculous versions of the conception. Name:  Alexander III of MacedonDates:  c. 20 July 356 B.C. - 10 June 323.Place of Birth and Death:  Pella and BabylonDates of Rule:  336-323Parents:  Philip II of Macedonia and OlympiasOccupation:  Ruler and military leader Alexander was born around July 20, 356 B.C. Being non-Macedonian made Olympias status lower than the Macedonian woman Philip later married. As a result, there was much conflict between Alexanders parents. As a Youth Alexander was tutored by Leonidas (possibly his uncle) and the great Greek philosopher Aristotle. During his youth, Alexander showed great observational powers when he tamed the wild horse Bucephalus. In 326, when his beloved horse died, he renamed a city in India/Pakistan, on the banks of the Hydaspes (Jhelum) river, for Bucephalus. Our image of Alexander is youthful because that is how his official portraits depict  him. See Photos of Alexander the Great in Art. As Regent In 340 B.C., while his father Philip went off to fight rebels, Alexander was made regent in Macedonia. During his regency, the Maedi of northern Macedonia revolted. Alexander put down the revolt and renamed their city after himself.  In 336 after his father was assassinated, he became ruler of Macedonia. The Gordian Knot One legend about Alexander the Great is that when he was in Gordium, Turkey, in 333, he undid the Gordian Knot. This knot had been tied by the legendary, fabulously wealthy King Midas. The prophecy about the Gordian knot was that the person who untied it would rule all of Asia. Alexander the Great is said to have undone the Gordian Knot not by unraveling it, but by slashing through it with a sword. Major Battles Battle of the Granicus - 334 B.C. (western Turkey) against Persian satraps with Greek mercenaries.Battle of Issus - 333 B.C. (Hatay province of Turkey) against King Darius of Persia.Battle of Gaugamela - 331 B.C. (northern Iraq) against King Darius of Persia.Battle of the Hydaspes (Jhelum) - 326 B.C. (northern Punjab, in modern Pakistan) against King Poros, who ruled a small kingdom, but had war elephants. Near the end of Alexanders expansion. (Although Alexander had intended to go further, and was soon thwarted by his own men, he thought he was near the edge of the earth.) Death In 323, Alexander the Great returned to Babylonia where he became ill suddenly and died. The cause of his death is unknown. It could have been disease or poison. It might have had to do with a wound inflicted in India. Alexanders successors were the Diadochi Wives Alexander the Greats wives were, first, Roxane (327), and then, Statiera/Barsine, and Parysatis. When, in 324, he married Stateira, daughter of Darius, and Parysatis, daughter of Artaxerxes III, he did not repudiate the Sogdian princess Roxane. The wedding ceremony took place in Susa and at the same time, Alexanders friend Hephaestion married Drypetis, Stateiras sister. Alexander provided dowries so that 80 of his companions could also marry noble Iranian women. Reference: Pierre Briants  Alexander the Great and His Empire. Children Herakles, son of Alexanders wife/mistress Barsine [Sources: Alexander the Great and His Empire, by Pierre Briant and Alexander the Great, by Philip Freeman]Alexander IV, son of Roxane Both children were killed before they reached adulthood. Source: Alexander the Great- Children Alexander the Great Quizzes Why Did Alexander Burn Persepolis QuizAlexander the Great Quiz I - The Early YearsAlexander the Great Quiz II - From Empire-Building to Death Other Articles on Alexander the Great What Color Was Alexanders Hair?Was Alexander the Great a Greek?

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

U.S. Government Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

U.S. Government - Research Paper Example The paper also examines three reasons for continuing federalism and its current form in the United States. In addition, the paper looks into the controversy of appointing people in the federal bureaucracy. Lastly, the paper will discuss the reasons why the U.S. has representative democracy over federal democracy on the federal level. What are the benefits of a two-party system in U.S. politics? What are the benefits of third parties in this system, if any? The political system in the United States entails two parties dominating during voting in elections and each level of government. The two-party system in the United States politics has several benefits, which forms the basis for the advantages accrued from such a system. One of the benefits of the two-party system in the United States is that it encourages and leads to political stability. The two political parties strive towards finding a common position that would be of benefit to the whole country. The system of two-party system leads to widespread agreements between the legislators, which eventually leads to political stability (Bertlastsky, 2010). According to Bertlastsky (2010), another benefit derived from the two-party system in the United States includes ease of governance. This emanates from the fact that such a system leads to a lot of harmonious existence between the two parties. As a result, legislators have the opportunity to participate in issues of governance and activities of the government. The two-party system is also beneficial as it leads to simplicity in the voting process; through such a system, voting becomes an easy affair in the United States. This is because there exist no complexities when the voter wants to make a choice between the parties. As opposed to a multi-party system, voting in a two-party system takes place fast since voters choose from a list of few candidates. The two-party system also lowers the rate of corruption in the United States. This emanates from the belief that leaders should think about the people who they represent. Failure to represent the will of the majority can make the electorate vote for the rival party in the next elections. Apart from the benefits of a two-party system, some benefits can also be derived from the inclusion of third parties in this system. Third parties give the electorate a variety of choices from where they can choose especially if the voters have expressed dissatisfaction with the parties in a two party system. Third parties also encourage sound governance since they promote transparency through regular critique of the government (Bertlastsky, 2010). Reasons for the Continuing Federalism and its Current form in the United States According to Holdsted t (2006), politics in the United States is based on Federalism, which gives both the executive and the states some powers. The constitution of America expresses significant belief in Federalism as a way of governing the United States. Under Federalism, the American constitution divides power between regional government and the Central government. Changes in the constitution have to be agreed upon by these two factions of the government. There are several factors that have contributed to continuing federalism, and they explain why federalism is deeply rooted in the U.S. system. One of the reasons that explain continuing federalism encompasses the practice of pragmatism. Federalism has proved to be highly